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      CommentAuthorTrim
    • CommentTimeJul 6th 2021
     
    Here is what Feynman said about ratchets.

    Maxwell demon overheat.

    For historical interest, we would like to remark on a device invented by Maxwell, who first worked out the dynamical theory of gases. He supposed the following situation: We have two boxes of gas at the same temperature, with a little hole between them. At the hole sits a little demon (who may be a machine of course!). There is a door on the hole, which can be opened or closed by the demon. He watches the molecules coming from the left. Whenever he sees a fast molecule, he opens the door. When he sees a slow one, he leaves it closed. If we want him to be an extra special demon, he can have eyes at the back of his head, and do the opposite to the molecules from the other side. He lets the slow ones through to the left, and the fast through to the right. Pretty soon the left side will get cold and the right side hot. Then, are the ideas of thermodynamics violated because we could have such a demon?

    It turns out, if we build a finite-sized demon, that the demon himself gets so warm that he cannot see very well after a while. The simplest possible demon, as an example, would be a trap door held over the hole by a spring. A fast molecule comes through, because it is able to lift the trap door. The slow molecule cannot get through, and bounces back. But this thing is nothing but our ratchet and pawl in another form, and ultimately the mechanism will heat up. If we assume that the specific heat of the demon is not infinite, it must heat up. It has but a finite number of internal gears and wheels, so it cannot get rid of the extra heat that it gets from observing the molecules. Soon it is shaking from Brownian motion so much that it cannot tell whether it is coming or going, much less whether the molecules are coming or going, so it does not work.
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      CommentAuthorTrim
    • CommentTimeJul 6th 2021
     
    Might have posted this already.

    Scientists create solid crystal form of electrons in the lab.

    https://newatlas.com/physics/wigner-crystal-solid-electrons/
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    Now to find a use for it.
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      CommentAuthorTrim
    • CommentTimeSep 2nd 2021
     
    Nice.